The genus Plum contains many subgenera such as: Prunus, Almond, Cherry, Apricot, Peach and others. But the most common representative of this genus is the subgenus Plum – these are fruit-bearing shrubs and trees, which number more than 30 species..
Plum is a fruit or berry?
According to botany, the berries are called the multi-seeded fruits of plants (such as strawberries, blackberries, strawberries, etc.). Plum has only one stone, which means that the first is not a berry. Plum is a fruit, because its fruits ripen on a tree, not on plants.
But in everyday life it is more customary to call it a berry, because of its small size. In the people, fruits are considered to be big fruits, the plum cannot be attributed to those, so it can be called both fruit and berry..
A plum is a tree or shrub?
Plum in height can reach from 2 to 15 meters – the plum variety has value here. Depending on the height, the plum can be attributed to both the shrub and the tree.
It has a taproot and a rounded crown. Plum leaf shape – oval, pink and white flowers.
What kind of fruit is plum?
All fruits by the number of seeds can be divided into two types: single-seeded and multi-seeded. In the multi-seeded fruit contains more than one seed, these include: tomato, pumpkin, currants, grapes, etc..
Plums belong to the single-seeded plants. The fruit of the plum is odnokostyanka oblong or round shape, it is covered with a thin skin that has a yellow, red, purple or purple color.
Classification of plum varieties
Plum varieties are divided into the following categories:
- Decorative. Can not be eaten. Grow them for decoration. Decorative plum is widely used in landscape design, for gardening summer cottages, squares and parks. In the period of flowering, decorative plum looks good against the background of coniferous trees. Shrubs ornamental plums are used as hedges;
- Edible varieties. The fruits of this category can be eaten, usually, they are large in size, as they are artificially derived;
- Conditionally edible. These are wild plum. The fruits are absolutely tasteless and small, but you can still eat them..
Edible varieties there are three categories:
- Culinary. From them prepare jams, jams, compotes;
- Dessert varieties – recommended for use only in fresh form;
- Universal. They can be eaten both fresh and used when cooking various dishes..
The most popular varieties of plums
- Chinese plum. This species contains several varieties that grow mainly in Central Asia. Chinese plum tolerates frost well and begins to bloom early. The fruits are reddish and round in shape, have a pleasant sweet taste;
- Plum Alycha. In Russia, this variety is very popular. It has small sweet-sour fruits, which make delicious compotes and jams;
- Honey, white. Dessert variety, bred in Ukraine. The tree of honey plum possesses frost resistance and high productivity. The fruits are yellow in color, have medium size and round shape, have a sweet taste;
- Anna Shpet. Variety bred in Germany. The fruits are egg-shaped, large-sized, have a peel of purple color, greenish flesh and sweet taste;
- Hungarian ordinary. It is one of the most popular varieties. Fruits are medium sized, oval in shape and purple peel. The juiciness of the fruit is moderate, the taste is sweet and sour;
- American plum. Recommended for cultivation in the northern regions. Has the appearance of a tall shrub, early blooms. Medium-sized fruits with purple skin.
Plum planting rules and care
Plum – a capricious and demanding culture. It is important to observe all the conditions when landing:
- Plum is very thermophilic, and it is preferable to plant it in the spring. Plant it in the fall, but in this case, it may not settle down due to cold weather;
- Planting pits need to dig a width of 70 centimeters, and a depth of 60 centimeters. First pour humus into the pit, then the usual soil;
- A wooden peg is hammered into the middle of the pit, a seedling is tied to it after planting;
- It is necessary to choose the right place for landing. It should be on the sunny side, and be well protected from the wind;
- Plum needs to be planted at a considerable distance from other fruit trees, otherwise it will not have enough moisture and nutrients.
In order for the crown to be properly formed, in the first year after planting the tree must be pruned, and then, do it annually in late March – early April. Perennial branches should be cut, especially recommended when the plum grows poorly.
The use of plums and its benefits
Calorie plum equal to 42 kcal per 100 grams. The fruits of home plums contain:
- Vitamins A, C and E;
- Magnesium and potassium;
- Trace elements;
Plums are widely used in cooking. Used as a filling for baking, for making jams, preserves, liqueurs are also made, used in various diets.
The use of plums in medicine:
- Prunes and juices with pulp are used as a laxative for constipation;
- Dried plum helps to eliminate cholesterol from the body;
- It has a diuretic effect, removes salt from the body;
- To prevent the development of blood clots in the vessels, brew infusion of plum leaves;
- Plum has wound-healing properties, in this case, use lotions from her decoction;
- Used to strengthen the immune system for colds;
- Plum contains organic acids that help with gastritis with low acidity of the stomach;
- Plum fruits improve the metabolism of proteins in the body;
- It is also recommended at elevated pressure;
- Due to the fact that the plum is rich in iron, it is used for anemia.
Plum, despite all its useful properties, can bring and harm. It is not recommended to use it in the following cases:
- In diabetes, it is contraindicated, as it contains a lot of sugar;
- Do not give plums to young children – it causes bloating and can cause diarrhea;
- Gastritis of the stomach with high acidity;
- With obesity;
- The use of plums for gout is contraindicated.
Be sure to remember that the unripe fruits of the plum tree are useless, moreover, they can be harmful to health. Also, it is better to use plum fresh, because during heat treatment 30% of vitamins are spent.