Carbohydrates (saccharides) – a group of organic compounds.
Allocate monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides.
Among monosaccharides, glucose and fructose are more common..
Disaccharides: maltose, sucrose, lactose.
Polysaccharides – compounds that contain hundreds, thousands of monosaccharides.
By entering the body, poly-and disaccharides are split into monosaccharides.
Based on this, the division of carbohydrates into simple (fast) and complex (slow).
Simple quickly absorbed in the intestines and in response to receive the same rapid insulin production..
Slow (complex polysaccharides) cause gradual, as they break down, the flow of sugar into the blood, and the same, slow, release of insulin.
The definition of the “glycemic index” of foods is based on the rate of carbohydrate breakdown and the formation of insulin.
The faster the rate of carbohydrate entry into the blood and the sharper and higher jump in insulin levels after consuming any product, the higher its glycemic index.
Conversely, if the carbohydrate is complex and its delivery is slow, the insulin index in the blood rises gradually, and the glycemic index is low..
Received nutrients are distributed in the body as needed: a certain part goes to the needs of the cells, the other – is stored in the form of glycogen in the muscles.
Last – energy reserve.
Based on this building diets.
Consuming foods that contain a lot of carbohydrates can lead to obesity..
Below are data on the content of this food substance in products belonging to different categories..
When preparing an individual ration, it is necessary to take into account that the amount of saccharides in the same product varies depending on the type of its preparation..
Thus, 100 g of raw carrots contain 10 g of carbohydrates, among them 4.5 g are simple sugars, and 1.5 g are starch.
After boiling 100 grams of carrots, there will be already 6.5 grams of simple sugars and almost no starch..
The glycemic index will change dramatically: 35 for raw and 80 for boiled.
During heat treatment, complex carbohydrates break down into components.
Therefore, starch has become less, and the number of simple sugars has increased.
From the point of view of losing weight or diabetes, raw carrots would be preferable, since they will not cause a jump in blood sugar and retain a feeling of satiety for longer.
Carbohydrate content in foods
The data are given per 100 g of the product in accordance with the scheme: total carbohydrate content / starch / dietary fiber content (fiber) / simple sugar content
Cereals and pasta
- Buckwheat 71/59/10/2;
- Pearl barley 75/65/9 / less than 1;
- Rice cereal 77/73/3/1;
- Millet groats 70/65/3/2;
- Semolina 74/68/4/2;
- Whole wheat pasta 75/66/8/1;
- Pasta made from wheat flour top grade 80/68/10/2.
For comparison: in the process of cooking porridge about 70% of complex carbohydrates are lost..
For example, in buckwheat, semolina and millet porridge there are 17 g (per 100 g of product), in pearl-barley and rice – 25 each.
The carbohydrate content of boiled macaroni also drops 3 times..
Vegetables, fruits, berries
- Fresh orange 10 / – / 2/8;
- Bananas raw 23/5/2/16;
- Raw eggplant 6 / – / 4/2;
- Green peas raw 14/3/5/6;
- Champignon mushrooms 3 / – / 3 / -;
- White cabbage 7 / – / 2/5 (glucose and fructose);
- Boiled potatoes 20/17/2/1;
- Baked potatoes 22/18/2/2;
- Raw carrots 10/2/3/5;
- Boiled carrots 8/1/3/4;
- Raw cucumber 4/1/1/2 (glucose and fructose);
- Cucumber salty 3 / – / 1/2;
- Fresh strawberries 10 / – / 2/8;
- 79/3/4/72 seedless raisins (glucose and fructose);
- Soft dates 75 / – / 7/68 (glucose and fructose);
- Candied fruits 83 / – / 2/81;
- Rosehip dry 71/6/23/42;
- Apples are raw 14 / – / 3/11;
- Dried apples 74/4/15/55;
- Canned apples 17 / – / 2/15.
- Raw peanuts 16/3/9/4;
- Roasted peanuts 15/1/9/5;
- Split peas raw 60/26/26/8;
- Boiled split peas 20/9/9/2;
- Raw white beans 63/40/20/3.
- Fat-free yogurt 8 / – / – / 8;
- Fat yoghurt (3.5%) 5 / – / – / 5;
- Raw egg – / – / – / -;
- Dry wine 2 / – / 1.5 / 0.5;
- Wine sweet 10 / – / 2/8;
- Sour cream, 30% 3 / – / – / 3 (lactose);
- Milk condensed with sugar 55 / – / – / 55 (sucrose and lactose);
- Cow’s milk, 3.6% 5 / – / – / 5 (lactose);
- Butter, 81% 1 / – / – / 1.
As can be seen, the carbohydrate content in foods of plant origin is higher than in other categories..
The largest number of them in cereals and legumes..
In the process of drying and baking, the content of saccharides of vegetables and fruits increases.
Here, the greatest value of simple sugars is fructose, since it has a low glycemic index..
Therefore, in the preparation of the diet menu, it is necessary to take into account not only the glycemic indicator of the product, the amount of sugars in it, but also what carbohydrates are included in the composition, as well as the method of food processing.
We recommend reviewing this and the entire video and understanding what the glycemic index is: